The Scope of Patent Term Extension under 35 USC §156 Only Includes the Active Ingredient of an Approved Product

In Biogen International GmbH v. Banner Live Sciences, LLC, [2020-1373] (April 21, 2020), the Federal Circuit affirmed the district court’s determination that Banner does not infringe the extended portion of U.S. Patent No. 7,691,001.

The ‘001 patent covers the administration of dimethyl fumarate, methyl hydrogen fumarate, or combinations thereof , and cover both the dimethyl ester and monomethyl ester forms are covered by this claim.

Biogen asserted the ’001 patent in an infringement action against Banner in the District of Delaware. Banner immediately moved for a judgment of
noninfringement, arguing that § 156(b)(2) limits the scope of the ’001 patent’s extension to methods of using the approved product as defined in § 156(f)—in this case, DMF, its salts, or its esters—and that MMF is none of those. Biogen responded that § 156(b)(2) does not limit extension of a method of treatment patent to uses of the approved product, but instead only to uses of any product within the original scope of the claims. Biogen further argued that, in any event, “product” in § 156 has a broader meaning encompassing any compound that shares with the approved product an “active moiety.”

The district court agreed with Banner’s interpretation of § 156 in both respects and rendered a judgment of noninfringement. It rejected Biogen’s argument that extension of a method of treatment patent under § 156(b)(2) is not limited to uses of the approved product.

The Federal Circuit explained that under § 156, an NDA holder is entitled to extend the term of only one patent for the corresponding approved product. Subsection (a) places several conditions on term extension for an NDA holder, including that the applicant’s approved NDA must be “the first permitted commercial marketing or use of the product. Subsection (b) limits the scope of the patent extension to “any use approved for the product,” and further, for method of treatment patents, to uses also “claimed by the patent.” The Federal Circuit said that citically, for the purposes of the appeal, subsection (f) defines “product” as “the active
ingredient of . . . a new drug . . . including any salt or ester
of the active ingredient.” § 156(f)(2)(A).

The Federal circuit said that “Active ingredient” is a term of art, defined by the FDA as “any component that is intended to furnish pharmacological activity or other direct effect,” 21 C.F.R. § 210.3(b)(7), and it “must be present in the drug product when administered.” The active ingredient
of a given drug product is defined by what is approved and is specified on the drug’s label. The Federal Circuit noted that MMF is not the approved product, nor is it specified as the active ingredient on the Tecfidera® label. Esters are included in the statutory definition of what can be extended, but MMF is the de-esterified form of DMF, not an ester of DMF. Thus, it is
not the same product under § 156(f) and does not fall within the scope of the ’001 patent’s term extension under § 156(b)(2).

Federal Circuit Affirms Non-obvious Holding in “Close” Case, Declining to Disturb Factual Findings on Motiviation

In Impax Laboratories Inc. v. Lannett Holdings Inc., [2017-2020] (June 28, 2018), the Federal Circuit affirmed the district court decision that claims 4, 11, 12, and 14 of U.S. Patent 6,760,237 and claims 6 and 14–
16 of U.S. Patent 7,220,767 were not shown to be invalid and entering an injunction.

The claims at issue are directed to pharmaceutical formulations, intranasal administration devices, or aqueous solutions, of zolmitriptan.  The Federal Circuit noted that all of the claims at issue rise and fall together with the issue of whether it would have been obvious to make zolmitriptan into a nasal spray.

In considering the asserted obviousness of the claimed invention, the Federal Circuit noted that while the reference mentioned the possible nasal administration of zolmitriptan (just once, and not in a claim or an example), the reference was not about administering zolmitriptan, but about the nasal administration of active ingredients generally.  The Federal Circuit also noted evidence in the record that a skilled artisan would have expected delayed or lower therapeutic effectiveness from
zolmitriptan if administered nasally because it would have been “absolutely counterintuitive to make a nasal spray when you have an active metabolite which is more potent . . . than the drug itself.”

The Federal Circuit said that:

In view of the totality of the record evidence of the state of the prior art, we cannot find that the district court clearly erred in its findings. Far from disregarding the prior art’s discussion of zolmitriptan, the court specifically considered and acknowledged that zolmitriptan was mentioned in connection with nasal formulations and
sprays. However, the court also properly considered additional record evidence to make findings on the state of the prior art as a whole.

The Federal Circuit noted that the presence or absence of a motivation to combine references in an obviousness determination is a pure  question of fact, as is what a reference teaches and whether it teaches toward or away from the claimed invention.  Based on the record before it, the Federal Circuit could not find that the court clearly erred in concluding that at the time, zolmitriptan’s known significant reliance on its active metabolite would have, on balance, dissuaded a person of
skill in the art from making nasal formulations of zolmitriptan.  The Federal Circuit said that it does not and should not reweigh evidence or make factual findings anew on appeal.